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Determine Residential Status of an Individual or Company in India

Get to know about your Residential Status in India for the Income Tax Filing Purposes. It varies between Individual and a Company.

1. Individual: Residential status of an individual depends upon the number of days stay in India.

2. Company: Residential status in any other case depends upon the place of incorporation (in case of company) and place of control & management.

Purpose of the Status: Necessity for determination of residential status of a person is to decide the tax liability on the total income earned by that person in a financial year.

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Primarily, residents can be classified into two categories

  • Residents
  • Non Residents

Residents can be further classified into two categories

  • Resident and ordinarily resident (ROR)
  • Resident and not ordinarily resident (RNOR)

Steps in determining the residential status of an individual

  1. Firstly, determine whether he is resident or nonresident
  2. If he is a resident, then determine whether he is a resident and ordinarily resident, or resident and not ordinarily resident

An individual is said to be a resident of India, if he satisfies any one of the following two basic conditions

  • He is in India in the previous year for a period of 182 days or more *
  • (OR)
  • He has been in India for a period of at least 60 days or more * during the relevant previous year and 365 days * or more during 4 years immediately preceding the relevant previous year.

 An individual is said to nonresident of India if he doesn’t satisfy both the basic conditions mentioned above.

 While calculating the period of stay in India, stay need not be for a continuous period, aggregate period of stay even in breaks have to be considered, and stay can be at any place such as place of residence, business, etc.

There are certain exceptions to basic condition 2 where instead of 60 days 182 days will be considered while determining the residential status of following persons.

  • An Indian citizen who is going outside India for a job and his contract for such employment outside India has been approved by central government.
  • (OR)
  • He is a member of crew of an Indian ship.

To determine whether an individual is resident and ordinarily resident (ROR) or resident and not ordinarily resident (RNOR) two additional conditions mentioned below must be checked.

  • He has been resident of India in at least 2 out of 10 previous years immediately preceding the relevant previous year.
  • (AND)

  • He has been in India for a period of 730 days or more during 7 years immediately preceding the relevant previous year.

An Individual is said to resident and ordinarily resident (ROR) if he satisfies any one of the basic condition and both the additional conditions mentioned above.

An Individual is said to resident and not ordinarily resident (RNOR) if he satisfies any one of the basic condition and doesn’t satisfy both the additional conditions mentioned above.


Determining residential status in any other case

 As said earlier above, the residential status of any other person other than individual depends upon the place of incorporation (in case of company) and place of control & management.

 Control and management does not mean carrying out day to day business functions by servants, employees, or agents. It means the business may be done outside India and yet its control and management may be wholly with in India.

 Control and management of a business is said to be situated at a place where the controlling and decision making power of the business is exercised.


Residential status of HUF

  1. A HUF would be resident in India if the control and management of its affairs is situated wholly or partly in India.
  2. If HUF is resident then residential status of KARTA determines whether the HUF is ROR or RNOR.
  3. If KARTA is ROR then HUF is ROR and if KARTA is RNOR then HUF is RNOR

Residential status of a Company

A Company is Said to be resident in India if

  • It is an Indian company as defined under section 2(26).
  • (OR)
  • It's control and management is situated wholly in India during the accounting year.

  • Place of ControlIndian CompanyCompany other than Indian Company
    Wholly In India ResidentResident
    Wholly outside IndiaResidentNon Resident
    Partly in India and Partly outside IndiaResidentNon Resident

Residential status of firms & association of persons (AOP).

A Firm or an AOP would be resident in India if the control and management of its affairs is situated wholly or partly in India.



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