Home > Income Tax > Help Center > Undisclosed Source of IncomeLast Updated: Nov 05th 2022

Tax On Undisclosed Source of Income

Undisclosed income means the income which is not shown by taxpayer in his income tax return and not paid the taxes on the same. Popularly known as Black Money in India. The objective of the Income Tax department is to bring all the undisclosed sources of income into tax.

Undisclosed sources of income include cash credits, unexplained investments, unexplained money, amounts of investments not fully disclosed in the books of accounts, unexplained expenditure, amount borrowed or repaid on hundi

Tax on Undisclosed Income (aka Black Money)

1. Black Money Vs Undisclosed Source of Income

Income Tax Act identified the treatment of 'Black Money' and 'Undisclosed Source of Income' differently under different sections, though both are used interchangeably.

'Black Money': All funds earned through illegal activity and the legally but not disclosed in taxes both domestic and abroad.

Terms that are loosely used in our society that represent 'Black Money' are unaccounted income, black income, dirty money, black wealth, underground wealth, black economy, parallel economy, shadow economy, underground economy or unofficial economy

Black money further classified into the representation of money or advantage that is due to 'Manipulation of Books of Accounts', and "Outside of Books of Accounts" (i.e., hidden).

Manipulation of Books of Accounts

  • Manipulation of Sales / Receipts
  • Manipulation of Expenses
  • Bogus expenses to Foreign entities
  • Manipulation of the Capital
  • Manipulation of Closing Stock
  • Inflation of Capital Expenses
Outside of Books of Accounts


  • Informal Economy
  • Parallel Books of Accounts
  • Unaccounted Assets
  • Investment in shares of listed companies through dummy route

The Scope of this document is adjusted to cover the 'Undisclosed Sources of Income' from Domestic Activity.


2. Undisclosed Sources of Income


2a. Cash Credits (Section 68)

Where any amount is credited in the books of taxpayer and the taxpayer offers no explanation about the nature and source or the explanation offered is not satisfactory in the opinion of Assessing officer, the amount credited will be treated as income of the taxpayer of that financial year


2b. Unexplained Investments (Section 69)

If the taxpayer has made investments which are not recorded in the books of accounts and the taxpayer offers no explanation or explanation offered is not satisfactory in the opinion of Assessing officer, then the value of the investments will be treated as income of the taxpayer of that financial year


2c. Unexplained Money (Section 69A)

If the taxpayer is found to be the owner of any money, bullion, jewellery or other valuable articles and the same is not recorded in the books of account and the taxpayer offers no explanation or explanation offered is not satisfactory in the opinion of Assessing officer, then the money and value of items will be treated as income of the taxpayer of that financial year.

Note: Ownership is important and mere possession is not enough


2d. Amount of Investments etc not fully disclosed in the books of accounts (Section 69B)

If the taxpayer has made investments or found to be the owner of any bullion, jewellery or other valuable article and if the Assessing officer finds that the amount spent on making such investments or acquiring such articles exceeds the amount recorded In the books of account maintained by taxpayer and the taxpayer offers no explanation or explanation offered is not satisfactory in the opinion of Assessing officer, then the excess will be treated as income of the taxpayer of that financial year.


2e. Unexplained Expenditure (Section 69C)

If the taxpayer has incurred any expenditure and he offers no explanation about the source of such expenditure or the explanation is unsatisfactory in the opinion of the Assessing officer, then such unexplained expenditure will be treated as income of the taxpayer of that financial year.

Note: Such unexplained expenditure shall not be allowed as deduction under any head of income


2f. Amount borrowed or repaid on hundi (Section 69D)

If the amount is borrowed on hundi or any amount due is repaid other than through an account payee cheque drawn on a bank, the amount so borrowed or repaid shall be deemed to be the income of the person or repaying for the financial year in which the amount was borrowed or repaid.

Note: If any amount borrowed on a hundi has been deemed to be the income of any person, he will not be again liable to be assessed again in repayment of such hundi.

3. Income Tax on Undisclosed Sources of Income

  1. Section 115BBE covers the taxation of undisclosed sources of income.
  2. Undisclosed sources of income i.e., cash credits, unexplained investments, unexplained money, amounts of investments not fully disclosed in the books of accounts, unexplained expenditure, amount borrowed or repaid on hundi are taxable @ 60%. Surcharge @ 25% of tax and education cess of 4% will be levied in addition to tax. The effective rate of tax is 78% on undisclosed sources of income.
  3. No basic exemption or allowance or expenditure will be allowed to the taxpayer in computing the tax under Section 115BE
  4. No Set off of any loss shall be allowable against income

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